The plant also contains more than 500 other chemicals, including more than 100 compounds that are chemically related to THC, called cannabinoids.2
2. Mehmedic Z, Chandra S, Slade D, et al. Potency trends of Δ9-THC and other cannabinoids in confiscated cannabis preparations from 1993 to 2008. J Forensic Sci. 2010;55(5):1209-1217. doi:10.1111/j.1556-4029.2010.01441.x
This rearrangement of cannabinoid and terpene profiles contributes to the effects attributed to sativa and indica highs. If we can focus in on the exact terpene profile responsible for a specific beneficial relief, we could theoretically introduce the terpene profile, separate from the cannabis plant, and achieve the same effects as using the plant as a transportation method. Thus, adding specific terpene profiles to water to achieve a “high” or to deliver a therapeutic dose of cancer treatment could be feasible. Research shows that certain cannabinoids bind to receptors of the endocannabinoid system, it makes sense that the terpene interaction would be the trigger which receptors are switched on or off. In a sense they are communicating with all of the systems of the body to determine which receptor will be activated and as a result, go to work in the affected areas. This is why certain smells, like sandalwood, can induce calm changes in mood while others, like ammonia, can cause noxious reactions.
At the conclusion of their study, the researchers had this to say:
- Evidence is accumulating that when CBD is administered with THC, CBD has the ability to diminish the psychoactive symptoms induced by THC… Despite diminishing the psychoactive effects of THC, it is thought that CBD reserves the potential for THC to exert possible therapeutic action among many different disease states. It is with these findings that novel medications containing a combination of THC and CBD are being explored for potential clinical benefit. Douglas Lee Boggs , PharmD, MS, BCPP1; Alyssa Peckham , PharmD2; Angela A. Boggs , PharmD, BCPP3; Mohini Ranganathan , MD4
The term ruderalis stems from the root word ruderal. In the plant world, a ruderal species is one that grows in spite of its environment being inhabited by humans or being otherwise affected by naturally occurring disturbances to the area. Many believe ruderalis to be a descendant of indica genetics that adjusted to the harsh climates and the shorter growing seasons of the northern regions where it originates. Cannabis ruderalis is native to areas in Asia, Central/Eastern Europe, and specifically Russia, where botanists used the term “ruderalis” to classify the breeds of hemp plant that had escaped from human and cultivation, adapting to the extreme environments found in these climates.
Originally, cannabis ruderalis was considered a wild breed of cannabis.
Cannabis ruderalis was first described by Russian botanist D. E. Janischewsky in 1924. The term ruderalis is derived from the Latin rūdera, which is the plural form of rūdus, a Latin word meaning rubble, lump, or rough piece of bronze. A ruderal species refers to any plant that is the first to colonize land after a disturbance removing competition.
2. Hillig, Karl W.; Mahlberg, Paul G. (2004-06-01). “A chemotaxonomic analysis of cannabinoid variation in Cannabis (Cannabaceae)”. American Journal of Botany. 91 (6): 966–975. doi:10.3732/ajb.91.6.966. ISSN 0002-9122. PMID 21653452.
- Many countries differentiate hemp vs. marijuana by the amount of THC produced per weight of a dry plant. In the U.S., industrial hemp is defined as a Cannabis sativa L. plant not containing more than 0.3% THC. The European Union has set the limit at 0.2%, while in Great Britain the limit is zero, unless growers have a cultivation license to grow industrial hemp with no more than 0.2% THC.
- Hemp has been cultivated on a global scale for thousands of years. The oldest documented evidence of hemp cultivation is a rope, which dates back to 26,900 BCE, found in today’s Czech Republic.
- Some of the earliest known prolific uses of hemp began in China about 10,000 BCE, where it was used for making clothing, rope, and paper. The Yangshao people, who lived in China from roughly 5000 BCE, wove hemp and pressed it into their pottery for decorative purposes. From about 5000 to 300 BCE, the plant was also grown in Japan and used for fiber and paper.
- Cannabis played a large role in the Greco-Roman cultures as a source of fiber, intoxication, and medicine. Cannabis seeds were discovered in the ruins of Pompeii, and Greek rhetorician Athenaeus made note of hemp being used to make rope between 170 and 230 CE. Roman author and naturalist Pliny the Elder also made reference to a cannabis root decoction as a treatment for joint stiffness and gout in the first century BCE.
- the Columbia History of the World states that the oldest relic of human industry is a scrap of hemp fabric dating back to approximately 8,000 BC.
- Hemp was a prominent crop in the United States until 1937, when the Marihuana Tax Act virtually obliterated the industry in America.
- Exactly how and when hemp originated in the New World is still highly debated. Though long thought to be introduced to the Americas by Christopher Columbus, hemp has been discovered in Native American civilizations that predate Columbus’ arrival. William Henry Holmes’ “Prehistoric Textile Art of Eastern United States” report from 1896 notes hemp from Native American tribes of the Great Lakes and Mississippi Valley.
- Hemp products from pre-Columbian native civilizations were also found in Virginia. Vikings, who used the plant for making rope and sails, may also have brought seeds with them when they attempted to colonize the New World.
- Jamestown settlers introduced hemp to colonial America in the early 1600s for rope, paper, and other fiber-based products; they even imposed fines on those who didn’t produce the crop themselves. U.S. presidents George Washington and Thomas Jefferson grew hemp.
- Hemp was a prominent crop in the United States until 1937, when the Marihuana Tax Act virtually obliterated the American hemp industry. During World War II, the crop saw a resurgence in the U.S., as it was used extensively to make military items including uniforms, canvas, and rope. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) even released a short documentary, “Hemp for Victory,” in 1942, which promoted the plant as a useful crop for the war cause.
- The World War II hemp resurgence was short-lived, though. Until the passing of the 2014 Farm Bill, the Controlled Substances Act of 1970 kept industrial production dormant. Today, hemp is rapidly becoming an indispensable resource for CBD oil and other CBD products.
In early American history, the term “marijuana” was non-existent and “cannabis” was the primary term used to classify the plant.
Between 1910 and 1920, nearly a million Mexicans migrated into the United States seeking refuge from the Mexican Revolution.
During this time, anti-Mexican sentiment had begun to steep and the term “marijuana” arose as a negative correlation of its use by Mexican immigrants.
Soon after, rumors began to surface, warning Americans of the dangerous and homicidal tendencies caused by using “Mexican cannabis” or “locoweed,” which lead to an even greater rise in anti-Mexican sentiment.
As the negative perception of cannabis intensified, the government began regulating cannabis more aggressively.
By 1927, 11 states had passed anti-marijuana laws and by the 1930s anti-marijuana propaganda and the fear of “Reefer Madness” was in full swing.
After the passing of the Marihuana Tax Act of 1937, which imposed heavy, unrealistic taxes on the possession, sale, and transportation of the plant, the federal government had effectively banned “marijuana,” paving the way for the next 80 years of cannabis prohibition.
- The 2014 Agricultural Act, more commonly known as the 2014 Farm Bill, signed by Democratic President Barack Obama, includes section 7606, which allows for universities and state departments of agriculture to cultivate industrial hemp, as long as it is cultivated and used for research. Under the 2014 Agricultural act, state departments and universities must also be registered with their state, and defer to state laws and regulations for approval to grow hemp. As part of the Agriculture Improvement Act of 2018, or the 2018 Farm Bill, signed by Republican President Donald Trump, the Hemp Farming Act of 2018 reclassified hemp (with less than 0.3% THC) from Schedule I, the most restrictive classification of controlled substances by the federal government, and are considered highly prone to abuse and to not have any medicinal benefits. This move to federally legalize industrial production of the plant allowed for cultivation and distribution as a legal agricultural product. Under the Hemp Farming Act, hemp cultivation is no longer limited to state departments and universities. In addition, the act allows farmers rights to water, crop insurance, and federal agricultural grants, as well as legal access to national banking. Hemp may also be transported across state lines. Prior to the Hemp Farming Act of 2018, 41 states had passed industrial hemp-related legislation. Thirty-nine of those states legalized statewide cultivation programs that defined hemp specifically to differentiate it from marijuana, establish licensing requirements, and regulate production. The Hemp Farming Act now requires state departments of agriculture to consult with their governors and chief law enforcement officers on a regulatory program, which will then be submitted to the United States Secretary of Agriculture for approval. According to Section 297B of the bill, state hemp regulatory programs must include a system to maintain information on all land where cultivation takes place, procedures for testing THC levels in hemp, and procedures for disposing of products that violate THC content restrictions.
Hemp can be grown as a renewable source for raw materials that can be incorporated into thousands of products. Its seeds and flowers are used in health foods, organic body care, and other nutraceuticals.
These plants have served a wide variety of purposes for thousands of years. The whole hemp plant, from stalk to seed, can be used to make the following and more:
- Furnishing fabric
- Building and construction materials
- Plastic composites
For more specific applications, hemp can be divided into four categories: bast fibers, Hurd (shives), leaves and flowers, seeds.
Hemp grows more vigorously than corn, but requires no pesticides, herbicides, or fertilizer, and much less water, earning it a reputation as a sustainable crop.
Hemp is an ideal plant for organic farmers because it requires minimal inputs, is fairly resistant to pests and diseases, and grow so fast and tall that it out-competes weeds, minimizing the need for hand cultivation – a major labor cost for most other organic crops.
Customers utilizing a combination of cannabinoids and plant-based terpenes in their products are enjoying both the CBD benefits and the communicative effects of essential plant oils. This is called The Entourage Effect and is responsible for some of the most dramatic recoveries in patient testimonials. When possible, ask your cannabis professional about this concept and see what they have to say.
Cannabinoids work differently than opiod pain drugs by the different receptors that they bind to and by reducing the signals to and from pain receptors and the brain.
The way that cannabis works, is by targeting the systems responsible for the discomfort for example – to aid in relief of a headache this can be addressed by increasing overall circulation, or respiration, and/or perspiration. These activities activate three different systems that may help alleviate but are not focused on pain relief.
The endocannabinoid system is found in the body of all mammals and is composed of endogenous (located throughout the entire body) cannabinoid receptors. These receptors are located in different parts of the body and are responsible for regulating a wide variety of physiological and systemic processes such as pain or appetite to rhythms of sleep and mental acuity.
The endocannabinoid system in our bodies has the ability to modulate pain by regulating inflammation or swelling in different parts of the body, such as the brain. For this reason, a group of researchers has conducted a study  on the role of cannabinoids, and in particular the receptor CB2-in postoperative cognitive dysfunction.
 Sun, L., Dong, R., Xu, X., Yang, X., & Peng, M. (2017). Activation of cannabinoid receptor type 2 attenuates surgery-induced cognitive impairment in mice through anti-inflammatory activity. Journal of Neuroinflammation, 14(1), 138.
The endocannabinoid system and its receptors are of great importance during prenatal development, but they are also relevant after childbirth. Not everybody is aware that there are already natural cannabinoids in breast milk and what role they play in the development of a human .
 Ester Fride, The endocannabinoid-CB1 receptor system in pre- and postnatal life. European Journal of Pharmacology, Volume 500, Issues 1–3, 1 October 2004, Pages 289-297, ISSN 0014-2999
he ability of cannabis to cause physiologic effects is due to the endogenous cannabinoid or endocannabinoid system. There are two primary receptors for the endocannabinoid within the brain: cannabinoid 1 receptors (CB1Rs), which are primarily located on neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system, and cannabinoid 2 receptors (CB2Rs), which are located on glial cells in the CNS and in the immune and enteric nervous systems.2-4
The stalks of industrial hemp—remember, that’s the kind with low levels of THC—can be made into rope, paper, wax, and cloth for furniture or clothes. Sterilized hemp seeds can be made into oil for shampoo, soap, or body lotion. The seeds can also be mixed in with food for animals.
Hemp fibers are primarily used for textiles, paper, building materials, and other industrial products. Raw materials such as hurds, or shives, are short woody fibers typically found inside the stalk. They’re used for making bedding materials, absorbents, particle board, ceiling panels, compost, and other industrial products.
It’s even possible to make alternative building materials with the stalks, such as hempcrete, which sequesters more carbon from the atmosphere than the carbon emissions required to produce it.
The voluminous quantities of biomass hemp produces are a potential raw material for livestock feed, biofuel production, paper and textiles.
Technically speaking, you can smoke hemp if really want to but it won’t get you high. In fact, smoking is not the best way to tap into the therapeutic potential of hemp. For that, you’ll be better served by consuming a hemp-derived product such as an oil, salve or tincture. These hemp-derived products including CBD isolates, broad spectrum, and full spectrum – can be used to treat a wide variety of ailments.
Hemp seeds are rich in protein, dietary fiber, vitamins, and minerals. They contain an optimal ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids for healthful consumption. A 2007 study also found that hemp proteins are more digestible for humans than common soy protein isolates (SPIs) used in food products.
Hemp can be used as a food product as either raw seeds or oils. Hemp oil is pressed from the seeds for a concentration of protein, meaning both food product forms are utilizing hempseed as a nutritional resource (Callaway, J.C. Euphytica (2004)). Seeds can also be ground up for flour or mixed with water to create hempseed milk.